### NAME

cvs - Concurrent Versions System

### SYNOPSIS

 cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

### NOTE

This manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs. It is auto-generated from an appendix of the CVS manual. For more in-depth documentation, please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the info CVS command or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage). Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

### CVS commands

#### Guide to CVS commands

This appendix describes the overall structure of cvs commands, and describes some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere; for a quick reference to cvs commands, see node ‘Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual).

### Structure

#### Overall structure of CVS commands

The overall format of all cvs commands is:

 cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ] cvs The name of the cvs program. cvs_options Some options that affect all sub-commands of cvs. These are described below. cvs_command One of several different sub-commands. Some of the commands have aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the reference manual for that command. There are only two situations where you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a list of available commands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself. command_options Options that are specific for the command. command_args Arguments to the commands. There is unfortunately some confusion between cvs_options and command_options. When given as a cvs_option, some options only affect some of the commands. When given as a command_option it may have a different meaning, and be accepted by more commands. In other words, do not take the above categorization too seriously. Look at the documentation instead.

### Common options

#### Common command options

This section describes the command_options that are available across several cvs commands. These options are always given to the right of cvs_command. Not all commands support all of these options; each option is only supported for commands where it makes sense. However, when a command has one of these options you can almost always count on the same behavior of the option as in other commands. (Other command options, which are listed with the individual commands, may have different behavior from one cvs command to the other).

Note: the history command is an exception; it supports many options that conflict even with these standard options.

 -D date_spec Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec. date_spec is a single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past. The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of a source file; that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records the date you specified, so that further updates in the same directory will use the same date (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node ‘Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). -D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, history, ls, rdiff, rls, rtag, tag, and update commands. (The history command uses this option in a slightly different way; see node ‘history options' in the CVS manual). For a complete description of the date formats accepted by cvs, see node ‘Date input formats' in the CVS manual. Remember to quote the argument to the -D flag so that your shell doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators. A command using the -D flag can look like this:
 $cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo  -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different behavior for those commands. See see node ‘commit options' in the CVS manual, and see node ‘Removing files' in the CVS manual. -k kflag Override the default processing of RCS keywords other than -kb. see node ‘Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Used with the checkout and update commands, your kflag specification is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout or update command, cvs associates your selected kflag with any files it operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future commands on the same files until you specify otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, export, import and update commands. WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag overrode the -kb indication for a binary file. This could sometimes corrupt binary files. see node ‘Merging and keywords' in the CVS manual, for more. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirectories. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node ‘modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). Note: this is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag commands. -P Prune empty directories. See see node ‘Removing directories' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is the default for all cvs commands, with the exception of ls & rls. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, ls, rdiff, remove, rls, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -r tag -r tag[:date] Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the date argument for the commands which accept it) instead of the default head revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify otherwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node ‘Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in see node ‘Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as described in see node ‘Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. When tag is the name of a branch, some commands accept the optional date argument to specify the revisions as of the given date on the branch. Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. Note: this is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r tag is available with the commit and history commands. -r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update. ### admin #### Administration  o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: repository. o Synonym: rcs This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative facilities. Some of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some of the questionable options are likely to disappear in the future. This command does work recursively, so extreme care should be used. On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin, only members of that group can run cvs admin commands, except for those specified using the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file. Options specified using UserAdminOptions can be run by any user. See see node ‘config' in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions. The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any system running the non-client/server cvs. To disallow cvs admin for all users, create a group with no users in it. On NT, the cvsadmin feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin. ### admin options Some of these options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes. Some even make it impossible to use cvs until you undo the effect!  -Aoldfile Might not work together with cvs. Append the access list of oldfile to the access list of the rcs file. -alogins Might not work together with cvs. Append the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins to the access list of the rcs file. -b[rev] Set the default branch to rev. In cvs, you normally do not manipulate default branches; sticky tags (see node ‘Sticky tags' in the CVS manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work on. There is one reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's version when using vendor branches (see node ‘Reverting local changes' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -b and its argument. -cstring Sets the comment leader to string. The comment leader is not used by current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7. Therefore, you can almost surely not worry about it. see node ‘Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. -e[logins] Might not work together with cvs. Erase the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file. If logins is omitted, erase the entire access list. There can be no space between -e and its argument. -I Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal. This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future release of cvs. -i Useless with cvs. This creates and initializes a new rcs file, without depositing a revision. With cvs, add files with the cvs add command (see node ‘Adding files' in the CVS manual). -ksubst Set the default keyword substitution to subst. see node ‘Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. Giving an explicit -k option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default. -l[rev] Lock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default branch. There can be no space between -l and its argument. This can be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one user can be editing a given file at a time). See the comments in that file for details (and see the README file in that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of contrib). According to comments in that file, locking must set to strict (which is the default). -L Set locking to strict. Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. -mrev:msg Replace the log message of revision rev with msg. -Nname[:[rev]] Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name. For use with magic branches, see see node ‘Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual. -nname[:[rev]] Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev. It is normally better to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead. Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already associated with another number. If rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association. A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a . stands for the current latest revision in the branch. A : with an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. For example, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest revision of all the RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$ which associates name with the revision numbers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working files. -orange Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range. Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing). If you are short on disc this option might help you. But think twice before using it—there is no way short of restoring the latest backup to undo this command! If you delete different revisions than you planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven forbid) a cvs bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are deleted. It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository first. Specify range in one of the following ways: rev1::rev2
 Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps. For example, after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and 1.4. Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have no effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove.
 ::rev
 Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch containing rev and rev itself. The branchpoint and rev are left intact. For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.
 rev::
 Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev. Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted.
 rev
 Delete the revision rev. For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4.
 rev1:rev2
 Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch. One will not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between. For example, the command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and including, the tag R_1_02. But beware! If there are files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03. So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes! In most cases you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.
 :rev
 Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and including rev.
 rev:
 Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev itself, to the end of the branch containing rev. None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks. If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions. If you really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o. If one specifies the non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions. This behavior is preserved for compatibility with previous versions of cvs, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change to be like the :: case. Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbolically if it is a branch. see node ‘Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual, for an explanation. Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you outdate. Strange things will happen if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back in. For this reason, this option is not a good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus change instead (see node ‘Merging two revisions' in the CVS manual). -q
 Run quietly; do not print diagnostics. -sstate[:rev] Useful with cvs. Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state. If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default branch. Any identifier is acceptable for state. A useful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for released). By default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when it is created. The state is visible in the output from cvs log (see node ‘log' in the CVS manual), and in the $Log$ and $State$ keywords (see node ‘Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual). Note that cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes; to take a file to or from the dead state use commands like cvs remove and cvs add, not cvs admin -s. -t[file] Useful with cvs. Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing text. The file pathname may not begin with -. The descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log (see node ‘log' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -t and its argument. If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I. -t-string Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string into the rcs file, deleting the existing text. There can be no space between -t and its argument. -U Set locking to non-strict. Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. -u[rev] See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with cvs. Unlock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock. This causes the original locker to be sent a commit notification (see node ‘Getting Notified' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -u and its argument. -Vn In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an error. -xsuffixes In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specifying the names of the rcs files. However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this option has never done anything useful.

### annotate

#### What revision modified each line of a file?

 o Synopsis: annotate [options] files... o Requires: repository. o Changes: nothing. For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with information on the last modification for each line.

### annotate options

These standard options are supported by annotate (see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

 -l Local directory only, no recursion. -R Process directories recursively. -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. -F Annotate binary files. -r tag[:date] Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual. -D date Annotate file as of specified date.

For example:

### import options

This standard option is supported by import (see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description):

 -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. There are the following additional special options. -b branch See see node ‘Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual. -k subst Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired. This setting will apply to all files created during the import, but not to any files that previously existed in the repository. See see node ‘Substitution modes' in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k settings. -I name Specify file names that should be ignored during import. You can use this option repeatedly. To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify -I !'. name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvsignore file. see node ‘cvsignore' in the CVS manual. -W spec Specify file names that should be filtered during import. You can use this option repeatedly. spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. see node ‘Wrappers' in the CVS manual. -X Modify the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files so that new files do not immediately appear on the main trunk. Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if they were deleted on the main trunk, by taking the following steps for each file in addition to those normally taken on import: creating a new revision on the main trunk indicating that the new file is dead, resetting the new file's default branch, and placing the file in the Attic (see node ‘Attic' in the CVS manual) directory. Use of this option can be forced on a repository-wide basis by setting the ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly option in CVSROOT/config (see node ‘config' in the CVS manual).

### import output

import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

 U file The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary). N file The file is a new file which has been added to the repository. C file The file already exists in the repository but has been locally modified; you will have to merge the changes. I file The file is being ignored (see node ‘cvsignore' in the CVS manual). L file The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links. People periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it should be changed to, it is not apparent. (Various options in the modules file can be used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node ‘modules' in the CVS manual.)

### import examples

See see node ‘Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and see node ‘From files' in the CVS manual.

 o Synopsis: log [options] [files...] o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: nothing. Display log information for files. log used to call the rcs utility rlog. Although this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands. The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things. For each revision, the revision number, the date, the author, the number of lines added/deleted, the commitid and the log message are printed. All dates are displayed in local time at the client. This is typically specified in the $TZ environment variable, which can be set to govern how log displays dates. Note: log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual). ### log options By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (-d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified.  -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1  d2>d1  Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2.   d>  Select all revisions dated d or earlier.  d<  >d  Select all revisions dated d or later.  d  Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h  Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions of revisions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2  Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch).  rev1::rev2  The same, but excluding rev1.  :rev  ::rev  Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev.  rev:  Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev.  rev::  Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch containing rev.  branch  An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch.  branch1:branch2  branch1::branch2  A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range.  branch.  The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. -S  Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r. ### log examples Since log shows dates in local time, you might want to see them in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other timezone. To do this you can set your$TZ environment variable before invoking cvs:

 $TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c$ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c (If you are using a csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would need to prefix the examples above with env.)

### ls & rls

 o ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...] o Requires: repository for rls, repository & working directory for ls. o Changes: nothing. o Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist are synonyms for rls. The ls and rls commands are used to list files and directories in the repository. By default ls lists the files and directories that belong in your working directory, what would be there after an update. By default rls lists the files and directories on the tip of the trunk in the topmost directory of the repository. Both commands accept an optional list of file and directory names, relative to the working directory for ls and the topmost directory of the repository for rls. Neither is recursive by default.

### ls & rls options

These standard options are supported by ls & rls:

 -d Show dead revisions (with tag when specified). -e Display in CVS/Entries format. This format is meant to remain easily parsable by automation. -l Display all details. -P Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing. -R List recursively. -r tag[:date] Show files specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual. -D date Show files from date.

### rls examples

 $cvs rls cvs rls: Listing module: .' CVSROOT first-dir$ cvs rls CVSROOT cvs rls: Listing module: CVSROOT' checkoutlist commitinfo config cvswrappers loginfo modules notify rcsinfo taginfo verifymsg

### rdiff

#### 'patch' format diffs between releases

 o rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r tag2[:date2] | -D date2] modules... o Requires: repository. o Changes: nothing. o Synonym: patch Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release. (This is one of the few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device. You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any combination of one or two revisions or dates. If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revision or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file. Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories.

### rdiff options

These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

 -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -l Local; don't descend subdirectories. -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag Use the revision specified by tag, or when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. See see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual. In addition to the above, these options are available: -c Use the context diff format. This is the default format. -s Create a summary change report instead of a patch. The summary includes information about files that were changed or added between the releases. It is sent to the standard output device. This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between two dates or revisions. -t A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device. This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was. -u Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember that old versions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u. -V vn Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the expansion format changed with rcs version 5). Note that this option is no longer accepted. cvs will always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does.

### rdiff examples

Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler. You have no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed with a command such as this:

 $cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \$$Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix for bug fixes. R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago. Now, you want to see how much development has been done on the branch. This command can be used:$ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2

### release

#### Indicate that a Module is no longer in use

 o release [-d] directories... o Requires: Working directory. o Changes: Working directory, history log. This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout. Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. You can always simply delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node ‘history file' in the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout. Use cvs release to avoid these problems. This command checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from immediately above a cvs working directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in the module database. If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log.

### release options

The release command supports one command option:

 -d Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds. If this flag is not given your files will remain in your working directory. WARNING: The release command deletes all directories and files recursively. This has the very serious side-effect that any directory that you have created inside your checked-out sources, and not added to the repository (using the add command; see node ‘Adding files' in the CVS manual) will be silently deleted—even if it is non-empty!

### release output

Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date.

 U file P file There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing). A file The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository. If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be lost. R file The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal. see node ‘commit' in the CVS manual. M file The file is modified in your working directory. There might also be a newer revision inside the repository. ? file file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I option, and see node ‘cvsignore' in the CVS manual). If you remove your working sources, this file will be lost.

### release examples

Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.

 $cd .. # You must stand immediately above the # sources when you issue cvs release.$ cvs release -d tc You have [0] altered files in this repository. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y \$

### update

#### Bring work tree in sync with repository

 o update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag[:date] | -D date] [-W spec] files... o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: working directory. After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source from the common repository, other developers will continue changing the central source. From time to time, when it is convenient in your development process, you can use the update command from within your working directory to reconcile your work with any revisions applied to the source repository since your last checkout or update. Without the -C option, update will also merge any differences between the local copy of files and their base revisions into any destination revisions specified with -r, -D, or -A.

### update options

These standard options are available with update (see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

 -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See see node ‘Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -f Only useful with the -D or -r flags. If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See see node ‘Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same kflag. The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options. See see node ‘Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command. -l Local; run only in current working directory. see node ‘Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual. -P Prune empty directories. See see node ‘Moving directories' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe files to the standard output. -R Update directories recursively (default). see node ‘Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual. -r tag[:date] Retrieve the revisions specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on date. This option is sticky, and implies -P. See see node ‘Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. Also see see node ‘Common options' in the CVS manual. These special options are also available with update. -A Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options. See see node ‘Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates. -C Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from the repository (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however). -d Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're missing from the working directory. Normally, update acts only on directories and files that were already enrolled in your working directory. This is useful for updating directories that were created in the repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side effect. If you deliberately avoided certain directories in the repository when you created your working directory (either through use of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and directories you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will create those directories, which may not be what you want. -I name Ignore files whose names match name (in your working directory) during the update. You can specify -I more than once on the command line to specify several files to ignore. Use -I ! to avoid ignoring any files at all. see node ‘cvsignore' in the CVS manual, for other ways to make cvs ignore some files. -Wspec Specify file names that should be filtered during update. You can use this option repeatedly. spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. see node ‘Wrappers' in the CVS manual. -jrevision With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j option to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory. With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified with the -j option, into the working directory. The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the -j option. Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were removed on the branch. see node ‘Merging adds and removals' in the CVS manual, for more. In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date. An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier. see node ‘Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

### update output

update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

### AUTHORS

 Dick Grune Original author of the cvs shell script version posted to comp.sources.unix in the volume6 release of December, 1986. Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms. Brian Berliner Coder and designer of the cvs program itself in April, 1989, based on the original work done by Dick. Jeff Polk Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch support and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor of cvs import). Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke Have helped maintain cvs for many years. And many others too numerous to mention here.